As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left numerous enduring landmarks such as Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Market and Trajan's Column. À la mort de Néron en 68, Nymphidius Sabinus tente d'usurper le trône à Galba, faisant prévaloir sa prétendue descendance de Caligula. In contrast, his successor Hadrian would stress the notion of the empire as ecumenical and of the Emperor as universal benefactor and not kosmocrator. Augustus Caesar (27 BCE - 14 CE) was the name of the first and, by most accounts, greatest Roman emperor.Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus on 23 September 63 BCE. Lendon, "Three Emperors and the Roman Imperial Regime". [119][121] By 105, the concentration of Roman troops assembled in the middle and lower Danube amounted to fourteen legions (up from nine in 101) – about half of the entire Roman army. Nerva, l’empereur de Rome de 96 à 98, adopta Trajan. [254] Whether or not the Kitos War theater included Judea proper, or only the Jewish Eastern diaspora, remains doubtful in the absence of clear epigraphic and archaeological evidence. T rajan, devenu empereur de Rome en janvier 98, peu après son adoption par Nerva, est mort à Sélinonte, petite ville de Cilicie, au sud de … Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. 2 Sesterce VESPASIANVS HADRIANVS.1 PROBVS.1 Dupondus de Nîmes . [100] But then Trajan's new Eastern senators were mostly very powerful and very wealthy men with more than local influence[101] and much interconnected by marriage, so that many of them were not altogether "new" to the Senate. "[71][72], These same Roman authorities had also an interest in assuring the cities' solvency and therefore ready collection of Imperial taxes. Allocution de l'Empereur Trajan Bas relief Arc Constantin François Perrier 1645 | Art, antiquités, Art du XIXe et avant, Estampes, gravures, lithos | eBay! .5 -~h2 I OFFICE. Trajan. Early in his reign, he annexed the Nabataean Kingdom, creating the province of Arabia Petraea. Ceux-ci, ayant jeté leurs armes et s'étant précipités à terre, supplièrent Trajan de vouloir bien, avant tout, consentir à ce que Décébale vînt en sa présence et entrât en pourparler avec lui, ajoutant qu'il était prêt à faire tout ce qui lui serait commandé ; sinon, que l'empereur envoyât, du moins, quelqu'un pour s'entendre avec lui." Il prend soin de ne pas utiliser de titre spécifique pour qualifier ses pouvoirs, qu'il ne prend jamais de lui-même, mais se les fait conférer par le Sénat. [187] The rationale behind Trajan's campaign, in this case, was one of breaking down a system of Far Eastern trade through small Semitic ("Arab") cities under Parthia's control and to put it under Roman control instead. [138] In another arrangement with no parallels in any other Roman province, the existing quasi-urban Dacian settlements disappeared after the Roman conquest. [18] Hadrian was then retained on the Rhine frontier by Trajan as a military tribune, becoming privy to the circle of friends and relations with which Trajan surrounded himself – among them the then governor of Germania Inferior, the Spaniard Lucius Licinius Sura, who became Trajan's chief personal adviser and official friend. [280], Ancient sources on Trajan's personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Various authors have discussed the existence of the province and its location: André Maricq (La province d'Assyrie créée par Trajan. Roman friendship ties with Charax (also known by the name of Mesene) were also retained (although it is debated whether this had to do more with trade concessions than with common Roman policy of exploiting dissensions amid the Empire's neighbors). En 117, l'empereur Trajan mourait et Hadrien lui succédait à la tête de l'Empire romain. [169] Reliance solely on loans to great landowners (in Veleia, only some 17 square kilometers were mortgaged)[170] restricted funding sources even further. [102] On the local level, among the lower section of the Eastern propertied,[103] the alienation of most Greek notables and intellectuals towards Roman rule, and the fact that the Romans were seen by most such Greek notables as aliens, persisted well after Trajan's reign. In: In the absence of literary references, however, the positioning of the new legions is conjectural: some scholars think that Legio II Traiana Fortis was originally stationed on the Lower Danube and participated in the Second Dacian War, being only later deployed to the East:cf. [79] Eventually, Dio gained for Prusa the right to become the head of the assize-district, conventus (meaning that Prusans did not have to travel to be judged by the Roman governor), but eleutheria (freedom, in the sense of full political autonomy) was denied. Quelques renseignements inobservés (Jean d'Ephèse, Anthologie Grecque XVI 72)". Le terme moderne d'empereur est donc utilisé pour décrire les dirigeants de l'empire romain, étant donné les liens étroits qu'ils entretenaient avec l'armée (dont dépendait le soutien armé de leur pouvoir) et il ne discrimine pas les styles différents de gouvernances au cours des différentes phases de l'Empire. [57] Dio's notion of being "friend" to Trajan (or any other Roman emperor), however, was that of an informal arrangement, that involved no formal entry of such "friends" into the Roman administration. Légat de Germanie supérieure, il est adopté par Nerva et associé à son pouvoir (97), puis lui succède en 98. Trajan Dèce, un empereur face aux barbares À l’évocation du nom de Trajan Dèce, que vous vient-il à l’esprit ? The senator Pliny had endowed his city of Comum a perpetual right to an annual charge (vectigal) of thirty thousand sestertii on one of his estates in perpetuity even after his death (Pliny's heirs or any subsequent purchaser of the estate being liable), with the rent thus obtained contributing to the maintenance of Pliny's semi-private charitable foundation. [193] As in the case of the alimenta, scholars like Moses Finley and Paul Veyne have considered the whole idea of a foreign trade "policy" behind Trajan's war anachronistic: according to them, the sole Roman concern with the Far Eastern luxuries trade – besides collecting toll taxes and customs[194] – was moral and involved frowning upon the "softness" of luxuries, but no economic policy. IN. [146], Trajan resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. [130], These costly projects completed,[131] in 105 Trajan again took to the field. À 20 ans, il commande une armée. [189] He had recruited Palmyrene units into his army, including a camel unit,[190] therefore apparently procuring Palmyrene support to his ultimate goal of annexing Charax. … Note : étant donné le chevauchement des règnes respectifs, le tableau ci-dessous n'est pas nécessairement chronologique. [115] Trajan's army then advanced further into Dacian territory, and, a year later, forced Decebalus to submit. [151], For the next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. [244] The second army, however, under Appius Maximus Santra (probably a governor of Macedonia) was defeated and Santra killed. [116] Trajan returned to Rome in triumph and was granted the title Dacicus. R. P. Longden, "Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan". For the emperor's father, see. Trajan (M. Ulpius Trajanus Crinitus) est un empereur romain, né le 18 septembre 53, mort le 11 août 117 ap. Montag 09 November 2020 von 14:00 (Paris) Schauen Sie alle Elemente der Auktion. [165] Finley thinks that the scheme's chief aim was the artificial bolstering of the political weight of Italy, as seen, for example, in the stricture – heartily praised by Pliny – laid down by Trajan that ordered all senators, even when from the provinces, to have at least a third of their landed estates in Italian territory, as it was "unseemly [...] that [they] should treat Rome and Italy not as their native land, but as a mere inn or lodging house". Col. 1485. [17] Around this time Trajan brought Apollodorus of Damascus with him to Rome[18] and also married Pompeia Plotina, a noble woman from the Roman settlement at Nîmes; the marriage ultimately remained childless. [60] This was something the Romans were not disposed to do as from their perspective the Greek notables were shunning their responsibilities in regard to the management of Imperial affairs – primarily in failing to keep the common people under control, thus creating the need for the Roman governor to intervene. A vicus was also created around the Tropaeum Traianum. Les années 68 et 69 correspondent à une nouvelle guerre civile romaine, opposant entre eux des citoyens romains. father's side Ulpia gens appears to have hailed from the area of Tuder (modern Todi) in Umbria, at the border with Etruria, and on his mother's side from the gens Marcia, of an Italic family of Sabine origin. Finden Sie Top-Angebote für SESTERCE- Trajan- Optimo Principi- Salus. Ses alliés rejoignant les uns après les autres le camp de Vespasien, Vitellius est finalement battu au cours de la seconde bataille de Bedriacum. Il … Trajan's birthplace of Italica was founded as a Roman military colony of Italic settlers in 206 BC, though it is unknown when the Ulpii arrived there. RE XII. J.-C. – 476. Brian Campbell, "War and Diplomacy: Rome & Parthia 31 BC - AD 235". [65] The main goal was to curb the overenthusiastic spending on public works that served to channel ancient rivalries between neighboring cities. [99] Trajan created at least fourteen new senators from the Greek-speaking half of the Empire, an unprecedented recruitment number that opens to question the issue of the "traditionally Roman" character of his reign, as well as the "Hellenism" of his successor Hadrian. [16], In 91, Trajan was created ordinary Consul for the year, which was a great honour as he was in his late thirties and therefore just above the minimum legal age (32) for holding the post. Trajan died on 9 August A.D. 117, after suffering a stroke, in the Cilician town of Selinus. Il existe un moyen mnémotechnique pour retenir la liste des 12 premiers empereurs romains (tel que Suétone l'a définie, donc César inclus). Eugen Cizek, "Tacite face à Trajan", available at, Fritz Heichelheim, Cedric Veo, Allen Ward,(1984), The History of the Roman People, pp. Monnaie Romaine Bronze Empereur Constantin II IVème siècle après JC Roman Coin. J.E. Trajan's war against the Parthian Empire ended with the sack of the capital Ctesiphon and the annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia. [269] In addition Hadrian was born in Hispania and seems to have been well connected with the powerful group of Spanish senators influential at Trajan's court through his ties to Plotina and the Prefect Attianus. L'éducation avant de devenir empereur. The program was supported initially out of Dacian War booty, and then later by a combination of estate taxes and philanthropy. [22], Since Domitian's successor, Nerva, was unpopular with the army and had just been forced by his Praetorian Prefect Casperius Aelianus to execute Domitian's killers,[23] he felt the need to gain the support of the military in order to avoid being ousted. [176] The fact that the alimenta were restricted to Italy highlights the ideology behind it: to reaffirm the notion of the Roman Empire as an Italian overlordship. [274][275] Trajan's ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan's column, the monument commemorating his success. Avec lui, l'empire romain entre pour de bon dans son Âge d'Or, le siècle des Antonins. Des dix Césars qui ne sont jamais devenus Augustes seuls deux ont eu une mort naturelle et au total, des 164 hommes qui ont porté le titre d'empereurs romains, de manière plus ou moins éphémère entre 27 av. [5] Book 68 in Cassius Dio's Roman History, which survives mostly as Byzantine abridgments and epitomes, is the main source for the political history of Trajan's rule. [41][42] In reality, Trajan did not share power in any meaningful way with the Senate, something that Pliny admits candidly: "[E]verything depends on the whims of a single man who, on behalf of the common welfare, has taken upon himself all functions and all tasks". ", In the 18th-century King Charles III of Spain commissioned Anton Raphael Mengs to paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banquet hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid – considered among the best works of this artist. It is usually assumed that the program was intended to bolster citizen numbers in Italy, following the provisions of Augustus' moral legislation (Lex Julia) favoring procreation on moral grounds – something openly acknowledged by Pliny. After having appointed Hadrian his successor, Trajan died while returning to Italy from the east. It was not a decisive victory, however. VOL. [40] In a speech at the inauguration of his third consulship, on 1 January 100, Trajan exhorted the Senate to share the care-taking of the Empire with him – an event later celebrated on a coin. [154], One of Trajan's notable acts during this period was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial festival in the great Colosseum in Rome (the precise date is unknown). Il meurt avant que celle-ci ait eu le temps de le renverser. [172] The same notion of exploiting private – and supposedly more efficient – management of a landed estate as a means to obtain public revenue was also employed by other similar and lesser schemes. Le sénat va jusqu'à lui accorder le titre d'optimus princeps (littéralement, "le meilleur empereur"). Sévère arrive à Rome et décapite Julianus, puis s'allie avec Albinus contre Niger qu'il défait à Issos en 194. Les ancêtres de Trajan, les Ulpii, sont originaires de Todi en Ombrie . Les quatre empereurs sont Galba, Othon, Vitellius et Vespasien, les trois premiers étant nommés et évincés (assassinés ou suicidés) au cours de l'année 69. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under the Trajan's Column. [30], As governor of Lower Germany during Nerva's reign, Trajan received the impressive title of Germanicus for his skillful management and rule of the volatile Imperial province. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. J.-C., il détient le titre de dictateur à vie, mais c'est Auguste qui met fin à la République en 27 av. A propos de la guerre parthique de Trajan. [95] It must be added that, although Trajan was wary of the civic oligarchies in the Greek cities, he also admitted into the Senate a number of prominent Eastern notables already slated for promotion during Domitian's reign by reserving for them one of the twenty posts open each year for minor magistrates (the vigintiviri). Les frontières naturelles (Rhin, Pyrénées, Alpes) sont loin d'être infranchissables, et les invasions n'ont jamais été arrêtées par la géographie. Jesper Majbom Madsen, Roger David Rees, eds. L'Empire, développé à partir de la République romaine après avoir fait de sa capitale Rome le pouvoir dominant en Europe au Ier siècle av. Les trois empereurs flaviens tentent de rétablir l'équilibre économique et militaire de l'Empire, affaibli par les derniers empereurs Julio-Claudiens et par la guerre civile de 69. Dante, The Divine Comedy, Purgatorio X, ll. C’était un empereur Romain fils d’un soldat de fortune il fut élevé aux honneurs par Vespasien. Trajan fut proclamé empereur à Cologne, dans les Gaules. [222], After wintering in Antioch during 115/116  – and, according to literary sources, barely escaping from a violent earthquake that claimed the life of one of the consuls, M. Pedo Virgilianus[223][224] – Trajan again took to the field in 116, with a view to the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign. [167] The fact that it was subsidized by means of interest payments on loans made by landowners – mostly large ones, assumed to be more reliable debtors[168] – actually benefited a very low percentage of potential welfare recipients (Paul Veyne has assumed that, in the city of Veleia, only one child out of ten was an actual beneficiary) – thus the idea, put forth by Moses I. Finley, that the grandiose aims amounted to at most a form of random charity, an additional imperial benevolence. Enfin, il nomme ses deux fils, Titus et Domitien, Césars (en faisant ainsi ses héritiers), le court règne de Titus (2 ans) étant suivi par celui de son frère jusqu'à son assassinat en 96 qui marque la fin de la dynastie. En 88, à la mort de son père, il est envoyé à Rome pour être confié à deux tuteurs parmi lesquels le futur empereur Trajan. Versand: + EUR 12,00 Versand . Kiểm tra các bản dịch 'Trajan' sang Tiếng Pháp. [55][56] In his third kingship oration, Dio describes an ideal king ruling by means of "friendship" – that is, through patronage and a network of local notables who act as mediators between the ruled and the ruler. [107] The treaty seems to have allowed Roman troops the right of passage through the Dacian kingdom in order to attack the Marcomanni, Quadi and Sarmatians. [148] On the other hand, commercial agricultural exploitation on the villa model, based on the centralized management of a huge landed estate by a single owner (fundus) was poorly developed. Frank Vermeulen, Kathy Sas, Wouter Dhaeze, eds. [207], The campaign was carefully planned in advance: ten legions were concentrated in the Eastern theater; since 111, the correspondence of Pliny the Younger witnesses to the fact that provincial authorities in Bithynia had to organize supplies for passing troops, and local city councils and their individual members had to shoulder part of the increased expenses by supplying troops themselves. [175] The fact that the alimenta were begun during and after the Dacian Wars and twice came on the heels of a distribution of money to the population of Rome (congiaria) following Dacian triumphs, points towards a purely charitable motive. [249] That done, Trajan retreated north in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia – where he had already accepted an armistice in exchange for surrendering part of the territory to Sanatruces' son Vologeses[250] – and Mesopotamia. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel! Bodleian Libraries. You can only move them between Droplets in the same datacenter. [68] A side effect of such extravagant spending was that junior and thus less wealthy members of the local oligarchies felt disinclined to present themselves to fill posts as local magistrates, positions that involved ever-increasing personal expense.[69]. Trajan est à Cologne lorsqu'il apprend par Hadrien, la mort de Nerva, survenue le 25 (ou 27) janvier 98. The next few emperors reconfigured or ignored it, and in 104 Trajan reused the palace’s walls and vaults to create a suitable foundation for his famous baths. [262], Hadrian held an ambiguous position during Trajan's reign. Officiellement et au moment de sa mort en 44 av. Dikla Rivlin Katz, Noah Hacham, Geoffrey Herman, Lilach Sagiv, Z. Yavetz, "The Urban Plebs in the Days of the Flavians, Nerva and Trajan". [141] The fact that these former Danubian outposts had ceased to be frontier bases and were now in the deep rear acted as an inducement to their urbanization and development. [245] Later in 116, Trajan, with the assistance of Quietus and two other legates, Marcus Erucius Clarus and Tiberius Julius Alexander Julianus,[246][247] defeated a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatruces was killed (possibly with the assistance of Osroes' son and Sanatruces' cousin, Parthamaspates, whom Trajan wooed successfully). It seems that the mortgage scheme was simply a way of making local notables participate, albeit in a lesser role, in imperial benevolence. Mais Trajan est avant tout un empereur militaire, connu pour ses deux guerres contre les Daces (Roumanie) qui se soldent en 106-107 par le suicide du roi Décébale et la réduction de la Dacie en province impériale (reliefs de la Colonne Trajane à Rome). [295] Trajan's first English-language biography by Julian Bennett is also a positive one in that it assumes that Trajan was an active policy-maker concerned with the management of the empire as a whole – something his reviewer Lendon considers an anachronistic outlook that sees in the Roman emperor a kind of modern administrator. In the Renaissance, Machiavelli, speaking on the advantages of adoptive succession over heredity, mentioned the five successive good emperors "from Nerva to Marcus"[3] – a trope out of which the 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of whom Trajan was the second. Istorijski reljef. [263][264] He received no post after his 108 consulate,[265] and no further honours other than being made Archon eponymos for Athens in 111/112. By trying to develop an anti-Roman bloc, Decebalus eventually left Trajan without the alternative of treating Dacia as a protectorate, rather than an outright conquest. [61], An excellent example of this Greek alienation was the personal role played by Dio of Prusa in his relationship with Trajan. [118] In 104 Decebalus devised a failed attempt on Trajan's life by means of some Roman deserters, and held prisoner Trajan's legate Longinus, who eventually poisoned himself while in custody. So he said: 'Now be comforted, for I must Défait, il vit en clandestinité pendant plusieurs années … [284] A third-century emperor, Decius, even received from the Senate the name Trajan as a decoration. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the wish felicior Augusto, melior Traiano (that he be "luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan"). En 96, alors qu'il était gouverneur de Germanie, il a été adopté par Nerva devenu empereur, auquel il a succédé en 98.Il a reçu le titre d'Optimus princeps, « le Meilleur ». This can be explained in part by the prominence of his father's career, as his father had been instrumental to the ascent of the ruling Flavian dynasty, held consular rank himself and had just been made a patrician. Par exemple : « Césautica, Claunégalo, Vivestido, Netrajhadan, Marcosepca », jusqu'à Caracalla. [159] In general terms, the scheme functioned by means of mortgages on Italian farms (fundi), through which registered landowners received a lump sum from the imperial treasure, being in return expected to pay yearly a given proportion of the loan to the maintenance of an alimentary fund. Vérifiez les traductions 'empereur' en Hébreu. [184] Also, Charax's rulers domains at the time possibly included the Bahrain islands (where a Palmyrene citizen held office, shortly after Trajan's death, as satrap[185] – but then, the appointment was made by a Parthian king of Charax[186]) something which offered the possibility of extending Roman hegemony into the Persian Gulf itself.