Esprit universel, polygraphe, il est l'auteur de nombreux ouvrages dans lesquels il aborde le désordre comportemental et la psychologie des foules. He stated that crowds maintained a collective mind and that the group mind was not simply a summary of the individual persons. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. He pa…, Adam, Adolphe (Charles) Le Bon's work is discussed in its historical context in Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, eds., Handbook of Social Psychology, vol. However, with a certain degree of relationship between two villages or approximate races, foreign domination could easily be accepted. London: Allen & Unwin. Nevertheless, men such as Sigmund Freud and Gordon Allport acknowledged the vital importance of Le Bon's work. International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Anatomical characters (shape and cranial capacity, etc.) The electric interests and abilities of Gustave Le Bon … Obtuvo el título de doctor en 1876. ." . Gustave Le Bon, dont les livres sont encore d'un grand intérêt pour les psychologues, sociologues, historiens et autres., Est considéré comme le fondateur de la psychologie sociale. Translation of extract in the text provided by the editors. Gustave Le Bon was a French social scientist and philosopher. Such mixtures brought disastrous results and had led to the decline of the races and empires. Merton, Robert K. (1960) 1963 The Ambivalences of Le Bon’s The Crowd. Ohayon, Annick "Le Bon, Gustave (1841-1931) After Le Vau and Mansart, the most inventive French architect of C17. Biography: French polymath. Biographie : Gustave Le Bon est un médecin, anthropologue, psychologue social et sociologue français., Ohayon, Annick "Le Bon, Gustave (1841-1931) His deterministic conception of upper and lower races made him argue that it was advantageous for the first if they are crossed with other similar, forming a homogeneous, everything as it happened with the "English race", rather than with others very opposed or very different by their civilization, its past and its character, as it happened with the union of black and whiteIndian and European, etc. A good review of Le Bon's career is in the introduction by Robert K. Merton to Le Bon's The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (1960). These tautologous passages suggest that on occasion Dr. Le Bon practiced medicine in Paris after finishing his medical studies in 1866. Such discriminatory criteria also include those who relate to the degradation of peoples, social classes and races for miscegenation, physical, moral, psychological and intellectual inferiority of these in relation to the Europeans, and many others. He postulated another, very interesting kind of inferiority: this is the inferiority of the crowd, or of man in the crowd. Qui est Gustave Le Bon ? . Group psychology and the analysis of the ego. A prophet and harsh critic of mass society, he ushered in the "age of the crowd," "the most recent sovereign of the modern age.". Paris: Flammarion. COMMAS, J. gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Liv og virke Bakgrunn. Le Bon believed that the psychology of men in a crowd differs essentially from their individual psychology; they be-come simple automata, instances of a sort of new being. Biography Youth Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, Centre-Val de Loire on 7 May 1841 to a family of Breton ancestry. On the last day of his life he repeated the theme that where the common people continue to maintain, or gain, control of government, civilization is moved in the direction of barbarism. The hereditary characters were so stable that an ancient race transported to a medium that requires major transformations perished before that transform, as acclimatization was a vain illusion, as it happened with the English in India, that despite the rules of hygiene were not able to acclimatize. Il parcourut l’Europe, l'Asie et … During this period, furthermore, Le Bon began the work in social psychology that was to become the predominant concern of the final phase of his career. Le Bon's name has for years been associated with The Crowd (1895/1995), which made him one of the founders of group psychology. (December 19, 2020). Taine's influence on Le Bon was considerable, but so was that of Ribot and Charcot. It was by the most reckless, the most false, and the most harmful of his theories that Le Bon exerted his greatest influence, in France and even more so abroad. Leonard Joe (Saskatchewan), Gustavus Adolphus College: Narrative Description,,, However, when he was in his late thirties Le Bon’s interests began to shift radically: he invented recording instruments (exhibited in 1878), studied racial variations in cranial capacity, analyzed the composition of tobacco smoke, published a photo-graphic method for making plans and maps, as well as a treatise that put the training of horses on an experimental basis, and, finally, devoted more than ten years to research on black light, intra-atomic energy, and the equivalence of matter and energy. Biographie: Gustave Le Bon, né le 7 mai 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou et mort le 13 décembre 1931 à Marnes-la-Coquette, est un médecin, anthropologue, psychologue social, sociologue. (1894) 1898 The Psychology of Peoples. He has been reproached for the summary, polemical, even reactionary nature of his analysis. Carnot chose a statuette which Le Bon quickly indicated was not appropriate because it carried a curse. TORT, P. Dictionaire du darwinisme et de l' évolution. Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon est né à Nogent-le-Rotrou, dans le Centre-Val de Loire, le 7 mai 1841. It is these deeply-rooted beliefs that govern institutions (not the inverse, as Tocqueville had imagined). The electric interests and abilities of Gustave Le Bon led to a full and productive life. (1910). Different races that political circumstances were one people could prove to be in the long run one race, to the effect of the action of the medium, the crosses and inheritance; now also with the centuries, in addition to the physical characters, other moral and intellectual. Marie François Sadi Carnot, then the minister of public works, was given an opportunity to choose for himself an artifact from a group Le Bon had brought back. The French Revolution and the psychology of revolution. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. How, then, does it happen that in a crowd situation even the most rational of men are transformed into brutes? Their spirit is that of the crowd which, like every spirit, is part of the unconscious; but this is a very low-level part of the unconscious, archaic or primitive from a historical point of view and medullar from a physiological one. The national soul is produced by such nonrational mechanisms as suggestion and heredity; all metaphysical, religious, political, and social beliefs are so rooted in the national soul of each people. and biological (paper legacy, Anatomy, natural selection and the struggle for existence) with that tried to hold that many towns were inferior to the Aryans and, in short, to several European Nations. Gustave Le Bon, né le 7 mai 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou et mort le 13 décembre 1931 à Marnes-la-Coquette, est un médecin, anthropologue, psychologue social et sociologue français. → First published as Psychologie du socialisme. At the time of Le Bons birth, his mother, Annette Josephine Eugenic Tetiot Desmarlinais, was twenty-six and his father, Jean-Marie Charles Le Bon, was forty-one and a provincial functionary of the French government. Il entre ensuite à la faculté de médecine de Paris, mais en sort sans avoir obtenu son diplôme . Although Gustave Le Bon (1841–1931) is most generally known for his book The Crowd, his career in fact had three overlapping phases, the successive focuses of his interest being anthropology and archeology, experimental and theoretical natural science, and only finally social psychology. Also useful is Edward Ellsworth Jones and Harold B. Gerard, Foundations of Social Psychology (1967). 380 citations de Gustave Le Bon - Ses plus belles pensées Citations de Gustave Le Bon Sélection de 380 citations et phrases de Gustave Le Bon - Découvrez un proverbe, une phrase, une parole, une pensée, une formule, un dicton ou une citation de Gustave Le Bon issus de romans, d'extraits courts de livres, essais, discours ou entretiens de l'auteur. (1931) Ouvrage illustré de: 1- Médailles traduisant les sentiments d'une époque; 2- Instruments de l'auteur pour mesurer les variations des personnalités biologiques correspondant aux changements de personnalités mentales; 3- Combinaisons d'architecture montrant l'influence de races étrangères. Although he was originally trained as a physician, Le Bon's primary contribution was in sociology, where he developed major theories on crowd behavior. He selected extremely concrete problems for study—for example, the socialist movement, the organization of education, colonial policy, the French Revolution, and World War I—but always sought to treat these problems in terms of scientific generalizations at the highest level of abstraction. . The vital implication of this theory for politics is that laws are illusory and ineffective if they lack a basis in the national psychology. He believed that “the action of a group consists mainly in fortifying hesitant beliefs. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:, Gustave Le Bon, a French physician and philosopher, was born in 1841 in Nogent-le-Rotrou and died on December 24, 1931, in Paris. “The unconscious minds of the charmer and the charmed, the leader and the led, penetrate each other by a mysterious mechanism” (1910, p. 139). 1968). Thus he asserted the existence of a hierarchy of races, based on psychological criteria (such as degree of reasoning ability, power of attention, mastery over instinctual drives; see the Psychology of Peoples 1894) and confirmed on anatomical grounds by the alleged greater differentiation of the superior races and the greater consequent incidence of individuals who rise above the mean. The family’s finances were modest; and hi…, Édouard Le Roy, the French philosopher of science, ethics, and religion, was born in Paris and studied science at the École Normale Supérieure. Le Bon received a doctorate of medicine without any vocation for the profession. Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £25. Découvrez la biographie de Gustave Le Bon, ainsi que des anecdotes, des citations de Gustave Le Bon, des livres, des photos et vidéos. ." But Freud eliminated the notions of heredity, mentality, and suggestion and replaced them with a model of unconscious identification. → First published in the same year as Enseignements psychologiques de la guerre européenne. Any individual conviction that is weak is rein- forced when it becomes collective” (1912, p. 102); or that, during World War i, “isolated individuals regained their military value when they rejoined a familiar group, but not when they were merged into other groups” (1916, p. 243). Gustave Le Bon was an eminent psychologist and sociologist. Retrouvez les citations et proverbes les plus célèbres de Gustave Le Bon. 19 Dec. 2020 . Paris: Flammarion. → First published as Lois psychologiques de l’évolution des peuples. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, c1995. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Gustave Le Bon, Bases scientifiques d'une philosophie de l'histoire. Freud read Le Bon and was directly inspired by him in writing Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego(1921c). Charles-Marie Gustave Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, Centre-Val de Loire on 7 May 1841 to a family of Breton ancestry. Le Bon was a physician, anthropologist in the field, and finally professor of psychology and allied sciences at the University of Paris. The French Government sent him to the East as an archaeologist, and arrived in his travels to Nepal. They may even have special merit, for it was precisely such arbitrary assertions of Le Bon that contained his happiest insights. ." PESET, J.L. ." 19 Dec. 2020 . Pages v-xxxix in Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd. Gustave Le Bon, deren Bücher sind nach wie vor von großem Interesse für Psychologen, Soziologen, Historiker und andere., Ist der Gründer der Sozialpsychologie betrachtet. The psychological characteristics of crowds, as analyzed at length in the celebrated The Crowd, may be grouped around three themes. The warning was disregarded, and on June 24, 1894, Carnot, the fourth president of the French Republic, was assassinated by an Italian anarchist at Lyons. Although he was originally trained as a physician, Le Bon's primary contribution was in sociology, where he developed major theories on crowd behavior. ." The principle that only the unconscious produces effective action applies, according to Le Bon, not only to individuals but also to whole peoples (or races, so long as it is well understood that what is meant are “historical races,” created by the events of history, and not races in the anthropological sense). → First published as La révolution francaise et la psychologic des révolutions. Le Bon was perennially establishing hierarchies. These works, in the classic "social Darwinism," which sought to justify colonialism on the basis of the Arianism anthropo-sociological theories, are imbued with a geographical determinism (influence of climatic conditions and mesologicas: temperature, humidity, characteristics of the soil, etc.) Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. His best-known book is La Psychologie des foules (1895; translated as The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, 1897). ." France, Presses Universitaires de France, 1996. LE BON, G. The civilizations of the India. The consequence of these innate traits was a regression in the direction of more primitive, instinctual determinants of behavior, in contrast to more rational intellectual determinants. Le Bon told Carnot that the owner of the statuette would be killed upon reaching the highest office in France. 1910 Psychologie politique et la defense sociale. ." 1916 The Psychology of the Great War. (1912) 1913 The Psychology of Revolutions. ed. 1968). 19 Dec. 2020 . Although he was never an academic, he was well known, much more so than someone like Emile Durkheim. Gustave Le Bon (født 7. mai 1841 i Nogent-le-Rotrou i departementet Eure-et-Loir i Frankrike, død 13. desember 1931 i Paris) var en fransk sosialpsykolog, sosiolog og amatørfysiker. . International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. No one in the course of a lifetime could possibly master all the disciplines observed in Le Bon's scholarly work. ." French social psychologist born in Nogent-le Rotrou on May 7, 1841 and died in Marne - la Coquette on December 15, 1931. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Nationality: French. London: Allen & Unwin. New York: Viking. . Il fit ses études au lycée de Tours, puis à la faculté de médecine de Paris, où il obtient le titre de docteur en médecine en 1866. © 2019 | All rights reserved. But to make those changes and fixing there will be connected, the mixed races could not be in very different proportion, since if, for example, a small group of whites was transported in the middle of a great mass of black, that would disappear quickly. The statement increased not morality, and less when applied a system of education adapted to the needs of one people in another that was in a phase of evolution different. He published the majority of his own writings as part of the collection, as well as Henri Poincaré's La Science et l'Hypothèse and Marie Bonaparte's Guerres militaires et Guerres sociales. 1841-1931. He also indicated that crowds are capable of engaging in positive social actions as well. Born: Jacques Henri Marie Prévert in Neuilly-sur-Seine, 4 February 1900. . The fact remains that these two sentences went unnoticed. He died on Dec. 13, 1931, at Marnela-Coquette near Paris. Le Bon's beliefs with respect to political behavior consistently revealed a basic mistrust of the masses. Nationality: French. Le Bon, like Tarde, who wrote on the same topic at the same time, offered two explanations: mental contagion and the role of leaders, who are often, but not always, described as agitators. Retrieved December 19, 2020 from PRÉVERT, Jacques One of these eternal laws that Le Bon constantly invoked is the futility of rationality in the affairs of society: an idea does not prevail because it is true, but by virtue of psychological mechanisms that have nothing to do with reason, such as repetition and “mental contagion.” These mechanisms permit an idea to penetrate into the unconscious, and it is only when an idea does become part of the unconscious that it becomes effective for action. Le Bon's ideas about social evolution and political revolution were related again to racial stock. La meilleure citation de Gustave Le Bon préférée des internautes. Fittingly, 2016 marks the 175th anniversary of the birth of Gustave Le Bon, the French polymath who popularized this durable and dire idea. 1 (1954; rev. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Gustave Le Bon. Art Directory - the information medium for art and culture. Result of these were numerous articles and books. Né en 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou, où son père était conservateur des hypothèques, il fit ses études au lycée de Tours, puis à la faculté de médecine de Paris, où il obtient le titre de docteur en médecine5 en 1866. Gustave Le Bon was a French social scientist and philosopher. Explore books by Gustave Le Bon with our selection at, "Le Bon, Gustave [For the historical context of Le Bon’s work, see the biographies ofTarde; Tocqueville.For discussion of the subsequent development of his ideas, see Collective Behavior.]. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Zitierweise Le Bon, Gustave, Indexeintrag: Deutsche Biographie, [10.09.2020]. Translation of extract in the text provided by the editors. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Paris: Mercure de France. (Original work published 1895). I saw the first term of the kind applied to the animal, estimated that the different races of men were separated by distinctive characters as marked as that separating species of animals next, characters possessing the characteristic reproduce by inheritance with regularity and consistency. Paris: Flammarion. Retrieved December 19, 2020 from Retrouvez toutes les phrases célèbres de Gustave Le Bon parmi une sélection de + de 100 000 citations célèbres provenant d'ouvrages, d'interviews ou de discours. These covered various subjects, such as psychology and education, in Les lois psychologiques de l' évolution des peuples (1894), the psichologie du socialisme (1898) or Psichologie of education (1902); Physics at L' évolution de la matière (1905) and L' évolution des forces (1907); as well as other more general and anthropological, as the first civilizations of the India, the civilization of the Arabs, study of the civilizations and races, etc. Les phrases célèbres de citation Gustave Le Bon . In 1902, Le Bon began editing a collection of scientific works for Flammarion, the "Bibliothèque de philosophie scientifique," intended for the lay reader. Le Bon was a direct descendant of Jean-Odet Carnot, whose grandfather, Jean Carnot, had a brother, Denys, from whom the fifth president of the French Third Repu… Ironically, the fame of some men is based on their mistakes and thereby confronts their critics with a painful dilemma: either to blame such a man for the very things that made him popular or to praise him for contributions that would not have existed were it not for the mistakes. Le Bon, Delaunay and other anthropologists attributed to women intellectual, physical and moral inferiority on the basis of certain characters anthropological, like physical strength and different cranial capacity, weight and volume of the brain, which threw less than human values. To concentrate criticism on this particular problem of explanation would be misleading, for these theories of mental contagion and of the role of leaders are no more gratuitous, no more confused, and no more based on obsolete psychology than is the entire core of Le Bon’s system. History, for Le Bon, is a consequence of racial temperament; to understand the history of a people, one must look to the soul of the people. (1898) 1965 Psychology of Socialism. Because of this wide range, many have thought of Le Bon's work as shallow and dilettantish. Gustave Le Bon - Sociologue français. Extremely prolific man from the intellectual point of view (as Gobineau), exercised great influence in the second half of the 19th century and first decades of the 20th with various works. La Habana, Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1975. (December 19, 2020). revealed the distinctions between the superior and inferior races, but were the moral characters and intellectuals (accumulated by inheritance in a nation) who explained the dominance of a race or people over others. "Le Bon, Gustave The second characteristic of crowd behavior is its emotionality: the actions of the crowd are sudden, simple, extreme, intense, and very changeable, so betraying the feminine nature of crowds. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. (1980)., "Gustave Le Bon International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, Le Verrier, whose family came from Normandy, attended secondary school in his native city and then in Caen. Racial myths. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Paris: Flammarion. (Original work published 1912), ——. He designed the Chapelle de Port-Royal, Paris (16…, Gabin, Jean New York: Macmillan. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books. The last of the works on these subjects, Les monuments de I’Inde, appeared in 1893, when Le Bon was 52. Although defender of an elitist social theory of deterministic character with great biological component, Le Bon stated that the parliamentary system, despite its flaws, was the best method that Governments had undertaken, and tyrannies producing sterilization of values and the collapse of the energy, as well as the demagogic democracies. Das konnte er am genauesten das Verhalten der Zuschauer und die Gründe beschreiben was … He established a hierarchy of the sexes using the same kind of criteria. It was this view that earned Le Bon the occasional label of antidemocrat and elitist. Writer. In Psychology of Crowds, he explores theories of national traits and behaviour as opposed to the behaviour of individuals. From these travels there resulted a half-dozen books, chiefly on anthropology and archeology. A tireless worker, he made a living as a writer and editor. Il parcourut l’Europe, l'Asie et l'Afrique du Nord entre les années 1860 et 18805. “Contagion is a phenomenon that is readily observed, but has not yet been explained, and had best be related to the phenomena of hypnotism...” (1895, p. 17). Pensées brèves . 1911 Les opinions et les croyances. Studies ranging from components of tobacco smoke, through physical anthropology, to atomic energy and structure describe the broad range of scholarly interests Le Bon maintained until his death. Paris: Flammarion. Gustave Le Bon, né le 7 mai 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou et mort le 13 décembre 1931 à Marnes-la-Coquette, est un médecin, anthropologue, psychologue social et sociologue français. In the human races he/she distinguished characters provided by inheritance and characters purchased under the influence of the environment, education and other causes. New York: Fraser. Gustave Le Bon, (born May 7, 1841, Nogent-le-Rotrou, France—died Dec. 13, 1931, Marnes-la-Coquette), French social psychologist best known for his study of the psychological characteristics of crowds.. After receiving a doctorate of medicine, Le Bon traveled in Europe, North Africa, and Asia and wrote several books on anthropology and archaeology. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Adam, Adolphe (Charles) Learn about this topic in these articles: discussed in biography. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Persevering character and will peoples played an important role in the life of peoples that intelligence; on the other hand, those who had little power, character and perseverance were left dominate mass by a small group of men. All of Le Bon's work bears the mark of the intellectual climate of fin-de-siècle France: an attraction to the irrational, the primacy of feeling over reason, and the role of heredity and race. Gustave Le Bon nació el 7 de mayo de 1841, en Nogent-le-Rotrou, Francia. New York: Macmillan. Biographie. Born: 1841 - Died: 1931 Period: 20th century 19th century Place of birth: France Gustave Le Bon - Quotes. Liste des citations de Gustave Le Bon classées par thématique. Le Bon estudió en el lycée de Tours y después ingresó en la Facultad de Medicina de París. This rudimentary theory of learning was first formulated when he was stud… BIOGRAPHIE . International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Né en 1841 à Nogent-le-Rotrou, Eure-et-Loir, où son père, Jean Marie Charles Le Bon, est conservateur des hypothèques, Charles Marie Gustave Le Bon fait ses études au lycée de Tours. Biographie : Gustave Le Bon fait ses études au lycée de Tours avant d'entrer à la faculté de médecine de Paris, où il obtient un doctorat en médecine en 1866. Thus, when Le Bon dealt with pedagogy and politics, he carefully transposed to children and peoples what he had earlier learned about horses. The Crowd appeared in 1895, when he was 54. Adam, Adolphe (Charles), noted French composer, son of Jean (Louis) Adam; b. Paris, July 24, 1803; d.…, Prévert, Jacques The crowd. La meilleure citation de Gustave Le Bon préférée des internautes. . His watchword was: let the conscious become the unconscious. An interesting incident attributed to Le Bon concerns his return in 1884 from an anthropological expedition to India, where he was commissioned by France to study Buddhist monuments. 1913 Aphorisme du temps present. Ohayon, Annick "Le Bon, Gustave (1841-1931) Encyclopedia of World Biography. In particular, the “law of the mental unity of crowds” was widely accepted and taught, and perhaps still is. As a specific instance of such hierarchical ordering, Le Bon repeatedly compared the mental constitution of the Anglo–Saxon race with that of the Latin peoples, and down to World War i he considered the Anglo–Saxons superior in every way. But what do these explanations amount to? ORTIZ, F. The deception of the races. Military Serv…, Pautre, Antoine Le (1621–79). Liste des citations de Gustave Le Bon classées par thématique. Government officials, writers and scientists attended his "lunches": Théodule Ribot, Bergson, Valéry, Henri and Raymond Poincaré, Aristide Briand, and Marie Bonaparte, who introduced him to the work of Sigmund Freud and who remained Le Bon's friend until his death. "Le Bon, Gustave ed. Although he was originally trained as a physician, Le Bon's primary contribution was in sociology, where he developed major theories on crowd behavior. Hijo de Jean Marie Charles Le Bon y Annette Josephine Eugenic Tetiot Desmar- linais. Translation of extract was provided by the editors. Gustave Le Bon was born on May 7, 1841, in Nogent-le-Retrou. Although sometimes used interchangeably the term race and people, not conceived them as equivalent. The series had considerable success. Similarly, he claimed to support his ideas on the psychological hierarchy of races and sexes with material from his study of the variations in the volume of the brain. Le Bon's work is discussed in its historical context in Gardner Lindzey and Elliot Aronson, eds., Handbook of Social Psychology, vol. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Student of the Lycée de Tours, military physician during the Franco-German war, began working the anatomy and Physiology (materials of which published some works between 1866 and 1873) for deriving later into the anthropology and archaeology. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Science and marginalization. : +49 160 53 70 379 "Gustave Le Bon Born: Jean-Alexis Moncorgé in Paris, 17 May 1904; some sources give surname as Monçorge and Morcorge; father a cafe…, Gustafson, Hon. Picard, Edmond 1909 Gustave Le Bon et son oeuvre. In spite of, or perhaps because of, the book's phenomenal success—it has been translated into several languages and was reprinted many times—Le Bon has been disparaged and misunderstood by the scientific community.